Volume 16 No. 4 July 1996
THE CALIFORNIA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY
NEXT CHAPTER MEETING
Wednesday, September 25, at 7:30 p.m. at the Lone Pine High School Public Library. Speaker Richard Potashin will present a talk on the natural and cultural history of aspen groves in the Eastern Sierra with particular emphasis on the historical significance of aspen bark carvings.
NEXT CHAPTER BOARD MEETING:
Tuesday, July 23, 7:00 p.m. at Doris Fredendall's residence in Big Pine. All chairpersons are welcome and encouraged to attend.
On June 9th, while out hiking in the mountains he loved, George Clark our CNPS President past away. George was a very dedicated and sincere person who blended his interest in California's diverse landscapes with his leadership in ensuring that these ecosystems were protected through the CNPS. The Bristlecone Chapter will miss George very much and we send our condolences to his family.
In June, several members of our chapter attended the State Board meeting in Napa. It was a well attended meeting and we are working hard on finding ways for making the society run more smoothly and continue to represent its members. If you are interested in discussing some of your ideas on this topic please call me.
One final, but very important note. I want to thank Evelyn-Mae and everyone who helped make the first annual Sierra Spring Sojourn such a great event. We hope to have another one next year and of course, have not forgotten our other annual event, the Bristlecone Chapter Banquet. This year it will be held in September and Dianne Payne has once again orchestrated this popular affair.
Look for details in this newsletter and I hope all of you will bring many of the summer's botanizing adventures to share .
........ Scott Hetzler
The following article by Mary DeDecker is the ninth in a series on native plants that will focus on ecology, taxonomy and other natural history information.
Correction: In the May newsletter a very pertinent bit of information was omitted in the article about the Desert Olive - which Family it belongs to! Desert Olive, (Foresteria neo-mexicana) is in the Olive or Ash Family (Oleaceae).
The Goosefoot or Saltbush Family (Chenopodiaceae) is well represented in eastern California. Spiny Hopsage, Grayia spinosa, may have the honor of receiving the most attention of all those species. Its abundance of highly colored "fruit", makes it a showy, member of common plant communities. "Fruit" is the botanical term for the mature product of the female flower, so does not necessarily mean an edible treat. In this case it is a colorful sac enclosing a dry seed.
The plant is a grayish shrub, 1 to 3 feet high. It is easily identified by its striate, longitudinally lined, twigs which become spinescent at the tips. The leaves are small, mostly less than 1 inch long, somewhat oblong, with an attractive, frosted appearance when young. Grayia is mostly diocecious, meaning that the male and female flowers occur on different plants, but occasionally both sexes may be on the same bush. Both lack petals and are inconspicuous. They are wind pollinated, so do not have to be showy. Male flowers, at the bases of leaves or bracts have 4 or 5 stamens. It is the . female flowers, usually in terminal spikes, which produce the colorful fruit. The seeds are enclosed in flattened sacs which become flesh colored to rose or even deep wine red as they mature. The first reaction of observers is to expect them to be flowers.
This popular shrub was named in 1804 for Asa Gray (1810-1888) of -the Gray Herbarium at Harvard University. Dr. Gray wrote from Europe, "Hooker has a curious new genus of Chenopodiaceae from the Rocky Mountains, which he proposes to call Grayia. I'm quite content with a 'pigweed', and this is a very queer one". In recent years Dr. Philip Munz, author of the 1968 California Flora, expressed a special fondness for the shrub. It truly is one to be admired. It demands so little and adds so much beauty to the landscape.
It thrives in numerous plant communities from Creosote Bush Scrub to PinyonJuniper woodland, throughout the Mojave Desert and Great Basin as far east as Colorado. It requires little moisture and is extremely adaptable. Unlike many members of that plant family, however, it does not tolerate alkali. Its usual elevational range is 2500 to 7500 feet, but I have found dwarfed plants at 9600 feet in the Inyo Mountains.
........ Mary DeDecker
Sierra Spring Sojourn
Dry washes ablaze with perennials, gusty spring breezes, guests reaffirming the great beauty of the Great Basin Desert meeting the Sierra Nevada Mountains, mile high brownie sundaes at the banquet, a table laden with freshly gathered natives, incredible Sierra wave clouds at sunset. The first annual Sierra Spring Sojourn was held May 17th through the 19th outside Big Pine, drawing guests from all over California.
Plant enthusiasts viewed two evening slide shows featuring the most rare and the most beautiful local native vegetation by Mary DeDecker of Independence and Susan Cochran of Sacramento. Days were spent on field trips to a wide variety of habitats ranging from the Eureka Dunes, to Fish Slough north of Bishop, alkali meadows of the Owens Valley, the Alabama Hills, towering ridges of the White Mountains and to several foothills sites on the east slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountains.
This year's participants, both local and visitors, were eager to mark their calendars for next years' wonderful weekend at the second annual Sojourn. Look for announcements in upcoming newsletters and please join us next year!
........ Kathy Duvall
Parasitic Plant Surprises Spring Sojourners
"Over here, I have a broom-rape", Kathi Ellsworth, one of our Sierra Spring Sojourn visitors from Southern California called out from somewhere behind a bitterbrush. We made our way in her direction. As we approached and dropped down for a closer look at the inconspicuous little Orobanche, R.T. Hawke, a "sojourner" from Wrightwood remarked, "boy, that looks like valida, a rare species we have in the San Gabriels".
R.T. and I unsuccessfully attempted to field key it without harming this single plant. Meanwhile, other folks managed to find several more, and Mary DeDecker collected one to take home and solve the mystery. We went on with our trip, and enjoyed the other interesting plants the Independence burn area has to offer: the black walnut (Juglans hindsii), chaparral whitethorn (Ceanothus leucodermis), black oak (Quercus kellogii), and the Kerr lupine (Lupinus magnificaus var. glarecola) and the Inyo bush lupine (L. excubitus) among others.
We finished our explorations, said our goodbyes, and headed off in our own directions. Mary's direction was straight to her scope, and when my phone rang later that evening, it was Mary with the news "it keys out to Orobanche valida ssp. valida, and matches the description!"
We returned to the site later that week, but we were unable to locate the plants we had seen during the field trip.
Had they already dried up and blown away? Or were we just not looking in the right place? Whatever the case, we managed to locate five more plants that we hadn't seen originally, and took some photos. "Our" plant appeared to be using bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata var. glandulosa) and California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium) as hosts, while the San Gabriel plants reportedly are using silk-tassel bush (Garrya flavescens ssp. pallida), yerba santa (Eriodictyon tricholcalyx ssp. trichocalyx), California buckwheat, and various perennial grasses.
According to the CNPS Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants, and a 1983 Fremontia article, the Rock Creek broom-rape is known only from two populations in the San Gabriel mountains. A similar subspecies (O. valida ssp. howellii) occurs in the north coast ranges, and a specimen intermediate between the two subspecies (assigned to valida ssp. valida in Jepson) was collected in the Topatopa Mtns. of Ventura County in 1908. The Rock Creek broom-rape is currently on the CNPS List 1B, with a RED- code of 3-2-3.
You just never know what surprises you might find out there if you keep your eyes open. Good job Kathi!!
........ Kathleen Nelson
Upcoming Bristlecone Chapter Summer Field Trips
For all field trips, bring any of the following: hand lens, binoculars, camera, floras and plant lists. Be sure to bring plenty of water, lunch, good walking shoes or boots, and appropriate clothing for inclement weather and hot sun. Please arrive at the meeting sites early enough to leave from there at the given time. Carpooling is encouraged. Everyone is welcome, but please, no pets. If you need more information call Field Trip Chairperson Steve Ingram at (619) 3872913.
July 13. Rare Plant Monitoring at Smokey Bear Flat. Leader: Kathleen Nelson. We will help Kathleen, Inyo National Forest Botanist, with monitoring populations the Mono milkvetch (Astragalus monoensis), and mapping Lupinus duranii if time permits. We will remain near our vehicles, and the work will not be strenuous. Meet at 9:30 a.m- ' at the north end of Smokey Bear Flat on Hwy. 395, about 4 miles north of the turnoff to Mammoth Lakes.
July 20. South Fork of Big Pine Canyon. Leader: Doris Fredendall. This moderate walk, only as far as "the wall", is about 3 miles round-trip along a trail bounded by plants awaiting identification. The end of the trail holds a small stream-bound meadow and cliffloving plants. Meet at the end-of-the-road parking lot at the foot of Big Pine Canyon at 9:00 a.m. In Big Pine at the yellow caution light drive west 10 miles up the Glacier Lodge Road.
July 27. Sagehen Flat in the White Mountains. Leader: Kathleen Nelson. We will assist Forest Service Botanist, Kathleen Nelson, on a search of rare plants, including the White Mountain Horkellia (Horkellia hispidula) in Sagehen Flat and nearby areas. There will be moderate walking of 4-5 miles total. Meet at the triangle campground in Big Pine at 9:00 am, or 10:00 at the turnoff to Crooked Creek from White Mountain Road.
August 3. Green Lake in the Bishop Creek Drainage. Leader: Jack Crowther. We will hike from South Lake up to Green Lake for a look at some high Sierra plants. The walk is moderate (6-7 miles round-trip) with an elevational gain of about 1400 feet. Meet at the parking lot at South Lake at 9 a.m. Call Jack (8734565) or Steve with any questions.
August 10. Glass Creek Meadow. Leader: Steve Ingram. We will hike up along Glass Creek to the meadow where many late summer wildflowers should be in bloom. This moderate walk will be about 5 miles round-trip. Meet at the turnoff on U.S. Hwy. 395 to Obsedian Dome, about 9 miles north of the Mammoth Lakes turnoff, at 9:00 a.m.
September 14. Convict Creek. Leader: Cathy Rose. This will be a fairly strenuous walk up Convict Creek, possibly as far as Lake Genevieve, for a look at "botany", birds and water". Meet at 9:00 a.m. at the parking lot at the end of Convict Lake road on the northwest shore of the Lake.
October 12. Aspens: Ecology, Art, and Fall Color. Leader: Richard Potashin. We will work our way from Conway Meadows south to Bohler Canyon, and possibly McLaughlin Spring, looking at the colors and historical carvings in aspen groves. Meet at the Smart & Final parking lot in Bishop at 8:00 am, or at the Mono Lake Visitor's Center in Lee Vining at 9:15 a.m.
1996 Bristlecone Chapter Spring and Summer Field Trip Reports
Death Valley March 16
Our chapter always begins its field trip schedule with a trip to Death Valley where the blooming season begins early. The date selected this year was March 16 and I agreed to lead it.
Five vehicles met at the visitor's center in Lone Pine. Our first goal was the kiosk near the entrance to Mud Canyon, at the base of the Daylight Pass Road. There we met Renee Beymer, the new botanist for Death Valley National Park, who was to join us on the trip. She was eager to learn the plants of her new assignment but, sadly, there was not a bloom to be seen. It must have been a discouraging welcome for Renee but her attitude was positive. She said it gave her more time to learn the shrubs. We searched the usual places, drainage channels and along the base of cliffs, where hardy plants could always be found on dry years, but to now avail. The only plus was that there was no trace of Halogeton, the noxious weed that we had found well established on the summit on a previous trip. We had tried to eradicate it then when we filled plastic bags with the plant and delivered them to the park headquarters.
As a flower trip it was somewhat disappointing, but the scenery was, as always, dramatic and the day beautiful .
........ Mary DeDecker
Union Wash April 20
On April 20, 15 eager souls gathered for an expedition to Union Wash located at the southern end of the Inyo Mountains. Anne Halford was our enthusiastic leader on this excursion.
After driving to the base of the immense alluvial fan, we piled into three vehicles and ascended the rambling, rocky road to our starting point which now happens to be a new BLM Wilderness Area! Our journey began at the mouth of the canyon and as we ambled over what some called a trail, we started discovering some of the many hidden treasures of this trip. Although it was a bit early for many of the plants to bloom, we were greeted by many smiling cottontop cacti, Echinocactus polycephalus and Lycium cooperii and L. andersonii, or desert tomato, which Anne explained had fruits that are a tasty delight when ripe. As we walked further up the canyon, we found many large clumps of the Desert bush penstemon, Penstemon furticiformis. These weren't blooming just yet, however, they are definitely worth a return trip when they do. The flowering plants we did find included; Lomatium mojavensis tucked on a steep slope along with vibrant, scarlet locoweed Astragalus coccineus. Thanks to the keen eyes 'of a younger, arousing trooper, the group saw many golden forget-me-nots, Cryptantha confertiflora. Petalonyx thurberi or sandpaper plant, was just beginning to break its winter dormancy and for some of the group, was found to be somewhat amusing due to the "touchy-feely" nature of the leaves. We also found several of the dolomite specific Inyo rock Perityle, Perityle inyoensis.
As we wandered further up the canyon, the walls began to narrow and thoughts were wondering as to how deep the alluvium might be. How deep is it? Anne focused our senses and pointed out two species of mountain mahogany; Cercocarpus ledifolius and C. intricatus) which were growing right next to one another and were HUGE!
Now forgetting about the depth of the alluvium, our escalade into an ever narrowing canyon presented us with a cascade of water flowing evenly over dolomitic cliffs. The scramble over these cliffs posed a challenge for us, yet the irresistible urge to continue on gave us courage and we couldn't be stopped. As we climbed these short pitches, we found a whole treasure trove of different vegetation types. Amongst the rocks and water we discovered Echinocactus triglochidiatus var. mojavensis, (mojave mound cactus), Epipactis gigantea (giant stream orchid), Aquilegia formosa (desert columbine), and ferns; Cheilanthes parryi and Adiantum spp.). Tucked tightly into the shade of a rocky crevice we found a tiny, obscure flowered Pellitory, Parietaria hespera. Other species of interest were the Mojave spike-moss Selaginella leucobryoides and Glossopetealon spinescens.
At this point it was getting late and although the unexplored upper reaches of the canyon continued to allure us, we chose to turn back and were astonished to see how far up we had come from the valley floor. Sauntering downward we found an unidentified perennial Menzelia barely beginning to put out its first leaves which may have been M. oreophila (Inyo blazing star). We all wandered down slowly with new found knowledge and dreams of ammonite fossils instilled in our imaginations.
It was a day that not only quenched our thirst for an interesting outing, but also opened our eyes to the great places and plants within our own backyards.
........ Denise Waterbury
San Lucas Canyon May 4
Once again on May 4th an intrepid dozen or so enthusiasts trampled the several miles to the Pearly Gates and back to the hot vehicles.
The experience was vastly different this year than last. Dry and hot, not 4+ inches of snow on the way in from Lee Flat with clouds and cool temperatures. Nevertheless, it was a rewarding experience and well worth the effort (see last year's field trip report by Sally Manning in Vol. 14, No. 4).
All the same plants were there with the addition of thick-stemmed wild cabbage, Caulanthus crassicaulis var. crassicaulis, scattered along the road for about half a mile or so.
..... Vince Yoder
Box Canyon May 11
On a balmy May day, 25 of us gathered at the Park in Independence to meet Mary DeDecker for a trip to a special place on the western flank of the Inyo Mountains called Box Canyon. People came from all around to join Mary on this trip, even from as far away as Germany!
We began the journey by following the Mazourka Canyon road where we stopped to look at the earthquake fault and the few scattered Mesquite (Prosopis pubescens) that grow along the water courses (see Andrew Kirk's article about Mesquites in Vol. 14 No. 6). We continued heading to the east and then junctioned off to the north to follow a dirt road that soon led us to the canyon.
The rock walls appear as a complete surprise as you round the bend and are the striking grey of dolomite. We were all eager to find the botanical treasures that were sure to appear and we were not disappointed. Many of us went right to the belly flowers where we looked at the different and colorful desert calico flowers; (Loeselliastrum matthewsii) and Langlosia setosissima as well as the tiny gold easter bonnets, (Eriophyllum wallacei) and E. pringlei. All these colors; purple, blue, white, yellow, with bursts of magenta monkey flowers, (Mimulus bigelovii var. cuspidatus) kept our eyes busy.
The hillsides were vibrant too with mounds of butter-yellow Mono senecio (Senecio flaccidus var. monoensis) and we were lured up to the further reaches of the canyon to find many younger age-class cotton top cacti (Echinocactus polycephalus), whose perfect geometric shapes evoked an analogy from Victoria that they were like tiny "Buckmeister Fuller plants". Tumbling from the cliffs were abundant rock nettle (Eucinide urens), in full bloom as well as the pungent sweet Brickellia (Brickellia microphylla) and cliff phacelia (Phacelia pertiyloides).
The highlight of the day however was the find of the eye-catching desert five-spot (Eremalche rotundifolia) and the more diminutive, but just as much of a treat to see, yellow-flowered small mohavea (Mohavea breviflora). Both of these plants made a rare appearance on this side of the Inyos and we all felt fortunate to see them and to be in the company of Mary who took us to this secret place.
........ Anne Halford
Sawmill Canyon June 12
Our leader and his small entourage left from the trailhead by 8:15 a.m., hoping to beat the heat and avoid having to meet St. Pete. The shrubland on the lower alluvial fans was truly spectacular with the heavenly blue Eriastrum densifolium ssp. mohavense flowers contrasting with the cream colors of California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum) and the sulfur yellow of sulfur buckwheat (E. umbellatum). Huge fruiting specimens of purple sage (Salvia dorrii) and Mojave ceanothus (Ceanothus greggii var. vestitus) alluded to the other colors we would have seen several weeks earlier. Further on up the trail we noticed thick stands of lupines that apparently did not flower this year, and a few floriferous plants of desert sandwort (Arenaria macradenia). We saw two "mystery plants" that turned out to be Keckiella breviflora var glabrispepala, which is basically a shrubby penstemon with white flowers. The shrubland was so impressive, Scott vowed to lead a trip back here next year in May.
Just when it was starting to warm up, the trail got steep, but we were soothed by the sight of huge Sierra morning glory "shrubs" (Calystegia malacophylla) with hundreds of white flowers. We entered a Bighorn Sheep Zoological Area and the north ridge of Sawmill Canyon loomed closer. We climbed further still, remembering that the field trip description said "strenuous", but believing "El Presidente" when he said it was all downhill. At about 7,000 feet we came to some flowering Mojave prickly pears (Opuntia erinacea var. erinacea), desert paintbrush (Castilleja angustifolia) and the lowermost Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi). Then we hit the south ridge above Sawmill Canyon and could see Owens Dry Lake, the Coso Range, the entire White-Inyo range, and the dramatic northfacing canyon wall. From the welcome shade of a Jeffrey pine we got a bird's eye view of Sawmill Creek, a green ribbon that wound along the canyon floor out into the brown, dry valley, and ended at a road where a pipe diverted the water to the aqueduct.
We continued on along the south-facing canyon slope eager to meet the cool water and riparian shade and stop for lunch. We were somewhat surprised to find California black oaks (Quercus kelloggia) and manzanita (Arctostaphylos sp.) that grew larger and denser as we approached the canyon bottom. Eventually we were crunching our way through dried oak leaves surrounded by water birch (Betula occidentalis), willows (Salix sp.), oaks, pines, and white firs (Abies concolor). After eating lunch and numbing our feet in the north fork of Sawmill Creek, we walked up the trail to find a view down the canyon. Small seeps and sidestreams supported large monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus) and white bog orchids (Platanthera [dilatata var.] leucostachys). Just as the sunny trail was taking us on a switchback away from the water, our fearless leader plunged into the streamside thicket and found a spring with cool, clear water gushing up through the rocks. This appeared to be the main source of the creek we had been walking along, Nature's drinking fountain. After relieving our thirst and replenishing our water bottles, we headed back downhill to the Owens Valley.
........ Steve Ingram
Tree Lore is a series by Andrew Kirk that will be devoted to the identification, distribution and natural history of our native trees.
"Ten miles above the southern extremity of the Lake two streams, Sunday Creek and Kennedy Creek, empty in it, coming from the Sierra, their banks fringed with oak, willow, and cottonwood." (The Expedition of Capt. J.W. Davidson From Fort Tejon to the Owens Valley in 1859; P.J. Wilke and H.W. Lawton, editiors).
Captain Davidson, of the 1st Dragoons, traveled the Owens Valley mainly at the level of Owens Lake and the Owens River. At this elevation the "Cottonwood" he encountered, along what are now called Ash and Cottonwood Creeks, was Populus fremontii Freemont Cottonwood or Common Cottonwood, P. fremontii flourished in the Central Valley, so perhaps Captain Davidson knew this variable poplar from his tenure at Fort Tejon. If he were alive today, perhaps he could clarify the native distribution of P. fremontii, for it has been obscured by over a century of human planting.
Beyond California, Fremont Cottonwood is the common poplar of the desert southwest up to about 6500 feet. In the watershed of the Rio Grande, variety Wislenzii extends into western Texas. There it meets the Plains Cottonwood, P. sargentii, sometimes considered a variety of Eastern Cottonwood, P. deltoides. Indeed, early in this century P. fremontii itself was considered a variety of P. deltoides and the possibility still exists that one huge, protean poplar species extends across the continent.
This vast variability (perhaps abetted by hybridization with introduced poplars) is reflected in reference books with a variability of their own. Take for instance, Trees of the Great Basin, by Ronald M. Lanner (University of Nevada Press, but unfortunately out of print). Among the plates is a photograph showing leaves broader than long, with indented bases and large rounded serrrations on the margins. Page 144 contains a drawing of some quite different looking leaves: longer than broad, with deltoid bases, and smaller serrations. Both are Fremont. Both leaf shapes as well as intermediate versions, are common in the Owens Valley.
Also, watch for marked variation in architecture. In the "elk field", north of the Poverty Hills and east of Highway 395, is a beautiful grove of old cottonwoods characterized by vertical forking, which creates taller, vase-shaped trees, with narrower crowns. Or see the two forms side-by-side at Fort Independence. (You may find it hard to believe they are the same species.)
Hoping to find some archetypal Fremont Cottonwoods, I recently visited Cottonwood Creek. Though water has flowed there only rarely since the construction of the Los Angeles aqueduct, still the Fremonts persist, finding water as only they can. But there, too, leaf shape and growth habit vary widely, even including one handsome specimen with a Christmas-tree shape.
Perhaps most amazing of all is a population on lower Independence Creek which sports striking wine-red leaves for a couple of weeks after they appear in the spring, so that the trees resemble enormous ornamental plum trees. This ephemeral rufescence is a prominent feature of California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii) and the non-native Ailanthus, but is quite odd for a poplar.
Somehow, all this variation makes sense in a genus whose English translation is "crowd or nation".
........ Andrew Kirk
Native Plant Notes
The warm growing season finds some Bristlecone Chapter members enjoying the fruits of last year's seed collecting labors. Many native plant seedlings are thriving including brittlebush (Encelia actoni), Mojave aster (Xylorhiza tortifolia), Penstemon floridus, P. patens, P. rostiflorus, sulphur buckwheat (Eriogonum umbellatum), E. nudum, E. fasciculatum, Purple sage (Salvia dorrii), scarlet milkvetch (Astragalus coccineus), Great Basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus), Cryptantha confertifolia, chia (Salvia columbariae), columbine (Aquilegia formosa), giant blazing star (Mentzelia laevicaulis), Ceanothus greggii, mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius), mt. pennyroyal (Monardella odorotissima) and some other stragglers. Many of these species have been planted out and are doing well but for others that remains the next big challenge.
Some of our Chapter's homegrown natives were planted out on the grounds of the Mono Basin Scenic Area Visitor's Center. We were invited to "adopt" a garden bed by the Visitor's Center and on June 15, a small but enthusiastic group gathered to
........ Karen Ferrell
The 3rd Annual Bristlecone Chapter Banquet will be held on Wednesday, September 11 at the Big Pine Town Hall. Dr. James D. Morefield will be the speaker for the banquet and his talk is titled; Diversity and Rarity of the Nevada Flora.
The Gold Diggers will be catering the event and there will be a social hour with ors d'oeuvres at 6:30 and the dinner at 7:00. The price of the tickets will be $12.00 and can be obtained from Dianne Payne (872-3460).
One of the most critical things chapter members need to attend to is writing letters of opposition to the Resources Agency proposed revisions to the Guidelines of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).
Please submit your written comments to:
Maureen Gorsen General Counsel The Resources Agency 1416 Ninth St., Room 1311 Sacramento, CA 95814
Comment deadline is July 22.
Also if you can attend the public meeting on July 25th that would be really be optimal ! !
At the federal level, the House Resources Committee is examining the plans of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to resume listing of endangered species, now that the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing moratorium is over. Rep. Richard Pombo (R-CA) has remarked that he sees a need to examine the use of the ESA "as a form of federal land use control". The Fish and Wildlife Service has a backlog of 243 species awaiting final listing and 182 candidate species.
The Bristlecone Chapter warmly welcomes the following new members:
Jennifer Atchley Los Cruces, New Mexico
NEXT NEWSLETTER DEADLINE: August 28.